Bone health is affected by multiple factors. Parathyroid (PTH) hormone and vitamin D play very important role in bone metabolism. PTH hormone is secreted by parathyroid glands.
Disorders of parathyroid gland and vitamin d present as following problems –
- Rickets / osteomalacia
- Renal stones etc.
Useful tests to diagnose bone mineral disorders are
- Blood and urine biochemistry
- X rays
- Bone mineral density with DXA scan
- Ultrasound / CT neck / MIBI scan etc.
Hypo-parathyroidism is treated with activated vitamin d and calcium supplements.
Hyperparathyroidism is usually treated by surgery, but can be managed with medicines as well in selected cases.
Osteoporosis is treated with different medicines to reduce risk of fracture. Treatment of rickets / osteomalacia depends on it’s cause.